||Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)
| FishBase name:
| Max. size:
||200 cm TL (male/unsexed; Ref. 7251);
max.weight: 50.0 kg (Ref. 6949)
||pelagic; brackish; marine ; depth range 0
- 100 m
||subtropical; 30°N - 30°S
||fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish:
yes; aquarium: show aquarium
||Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5
- 14 years (K=0.09-0.11; tm=2-4)
|Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and east coast of
Africa to Hawaii, Marquesas and Tuamotos Is.; throughout Micronesia.
Western Atlantic: Massachusetts (USA), Bermuda, and throughout the
Caribbean Sea to Brazil (Ref. 9626). Eastern Atlantic: Sierra Leone,
Côte d'Ivoire, Togo, Nigeria, Senegal (Ref. 6949); Mauritania (Ref.
5377); St. Paul's Rocks (Ref. 13121); São Tomé Island (Ref. 34088).
spines (total): 6-6;
soft rays (total): 9-9;
soft rays: 10-10. Distinguished by the double emarginate tail fin
with pale tips on each lobe, and (usually) the presence of a few
scattered black blotches on the lower sides (Ref. 1602). Top of head
between eyes flat or concave; mouth large (Ref. 26938).
||Found predominantly at or near the
surface (Ref. 6949). Juveniles occur among mangroves, estuaries and
shallow sheltered inner reef areas; adults occur in a wide range of
habitats from murky inner harbors to open seas. Diurnal and solitary,
but can also be found in small aggregations. Feeds on fishes,
cephalopods and sometimes on shrimps (Ref. 9626). Sold fresh. Utilized
also dried/salted (Ref. 9987). Although this species is ciguatoxic
elsewhere throughout its range, it has not been reported to be
poisonous in the eastern Atlantic (Ref. 6949). Rarely attacks humans,
usually with one quick, fierce strike, which, although serious, is
rarely fatal. The world's record on hook and line is a 5.5-ft. fish
taken in the Bahamas that weighed 103 lbs. (Ref. 13442).
||Not in IUCN Red List , (Ref. 36508)
Halstead, B.W., P.S. Auerbach and D.R. Campbell. 1990
| Main Ref:
Daget, J.. 1986. (Ref. 4339)